The accelerated growth in different body parts happens at different times, but for all adolescents it has a fairly regular sequence.
The first places to grow are the extremities—the head, hands and feet—followed by the arms and legs, then the torso and shoulders.
Cognitive advances encompass both increment in knowledge and in the ability to think abstractly and to reason more effectively.
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A thorough understanding of adolescence in society depends on information from various perspectives, including psychology, biology, history, sociology, education, and anthropology.
Within all of these perspectives, adolescence is viewed as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is the preparation of children for adult roles.
For example, researchers in neuroscience or bio-behavioral health might focus on pubertal changes in brain structure and its effects on cognition or social relations.
Sociologists interested in adolescence might focus on the acquisition of social roles (e.g., worker or romantic partner) and how this varies across cultures or social conditions.
The testes primarily release testosterone, and the ovaries predominantly dispense estrogen.